Most people remember fewer than 10% of the names of people that they meet.
Fact: We remember the face, but we have made
no real connection between the face and name.
Myth: Most people forget 99% of the phone
numbers given to them.
Fact: Most people don’t really choose to remember
most phone numbers.
Myth: Memory is supposed to decline rapidly
Fact: Memory declines with age only if it
is not used. It can improve throughout your lifetime.
Myth: Most people confess to having a bad
Fact: Most people use the excuse of "only
being human," because they don’t know how to improve their memory.
Our memories are far better than we give them credit!!
- Most people have dreams of family, friends, places, and situations
that they may have not experienced in 10 to 30 years. Most of these
images are perfectly clear with color and in great detail.
- Everyone has had the experience of turning a corner and suddenly
recalling events from the past. A single smell, touch, or sound might
at any time bring back a flood of memory.
- A Russian journalist named Shereshevsky never took or made notes.
He could, however, listen to long speeches and recall line for line,
word for word, what he had just heard. Scientists concluded that he
was not a freak and did not have anything more than an average intelligence.
Shereshevsky did use basic memory principles in his everyday life.
- Professor Rosenweigs studies in the 1970’s concluded that if our
brains were fed 10 new items of information every second for the rest
of our life, that we would never half fill our memory potential.
- While working on a side project, the noted Professor Penfield found
that by electrically stimulating certain brain cells, his patients
were vividly recalling happenings from their past. The memories included
the smells, tastes, colors, noises, and movements associated with
- Professor Anokhin proved that memory is formed in small electrical
patterns among the interconnecting cells of the brain. We know that
the brain contains over a million million (1,000,000,000,000) cells.
The possibility of different combinations or connections of memories
between these cells is limitless.
- In near-death type happenings, most people confess to having "my
whole life flash before my eyes." We laugh and tell them they
probably just sorted through a few highlights. Studies show that most
of these people are serious and that they even recalled events totally
forgotten for many years.
- Studies show that if you are shown 1000 pictures at the rate of
one picture per second, that you could, with 99 percent accuracy,
pick those pictures out even if someone mixed in 100 new pictures
that you had not seen. We all border on the limits of having a photographic
- Memory techniques are not new and have been used since the time
of the ancient Greeks. Recent studies show, however, that if you can
master any one technique and score 9 out of 10 on a standard test,
that you will proportionally score 900 out of 1000 and so on. Memory
techniques work across the board with different cultures studying
different type subjects.
Why don't we use our memory to its fullest potential?
For some odd reason, we tag certain information and remember it well.
On the other hand, we poorly tag information that must be remembered and
are never able to recall it. The "GIGO" syndrome does not work
well for students at Texas A&M. Students who poorly tag or attempt to
put "Garbage In" will most certainly not be able to remember
and will get "Garbage Out" at test time.
If you have habits of losing things like eye glasses and car keys,
or forget everything you study for tests, you probably are passively
tagging these mental images. Things that are done and remembered as
everyday ordinary occurrences have not been tagged in your memory as
important. Memory that has not been tagged as important will in most
cases be stored as FYI and your mind does not see the need to remember
it with any authority.
Tagging input information in different way to make it memorable is
not a new concept. "Mnemonics," or memory enhancement techniques
have been studied since the time of ancient Greeks and Romans. In the
following pages, we will discuss several simple techniques that scholars
and memory tricksters use to improve their memory abilities.
The Link System
The link system is the quickest and most simple to learn. It creates a
memory foundation that makes learning advanced systems easier. The link
system is best used to positively tag information like shopping lists
or class test lists. By using principles like imagination, symbolism,
sight and touch we incorporate both left and right brain memory strengths.
The key to connecting any series in a list is to tag each entry with as
much information as possible. Making any list something unusual or bizarre
keeps it from being routinely stored and easily forgotten.
- Example: Pick any list of items you wish to remember. It
could be a shopping list or a listing of answers for a particular
test. For my example, we will use a short shopping list. In most cases
we forget to make or bring our shopping list. We then get home and
remember exactly what we forgot to buy. Here’s our list.
2 Glass tea pitchers
1 Bar of hand-soap
The Link System: Now imagine yourself walking out the front
door with a large metal comb in your mouth. Feel the smoothness of the
metal and then the point of each tooth on the comb. Balanced on that
comb are two large tea pitchers that glimmer in the afternoon sun. Hear
the tinkling of the glass as each of your steps makes the pitchers bump
together. You now hear a smushing sound and you stop. From under your
shoe you see a river of grape juice and seeds flowing. The cuff of your
jeans is now stained deep red. This alarms you and your first reaction
is to step back. As you step back, you find your self on a foaming bar
of soap in the shape of a surf-board. Now see yourself surfing on a
sea of grape juice leaving a trail of suds from your soap surf-board.
Feel the soap as it squishes up from between your toes. Smell the contrast
of grape mist and clean soap aromas. Suddenly you take a big spill and
now your clothes are all stained with grape juice. You’re now so nasty
that you have to return home.
Now you’re really tired. It took you 8 hours and 12 boxes of detergent
to get that grape stain out of your favorite jeans. Tired, hungry, and
out of detergent, you forge out to go shopping again. You’re really
getting good at balancing the tea pitchers on that comb. So good that
you will jump rope and balance the pitchers all the way to the mall.
Can you guess what the jump rope is made of? If you guessed it was made
of thousands of strands of dental floss, you were correct. See and feel
the rope in your own mind.
Now that you see how the Link System works, finish this story so that
you can incorporate the last two items on our shopping list—bread and
The Number-Shape System
Most of us are fairly familiar with the numbers 1 through 10. For each
number, all of us can come up with an image or shape that (maps) reminds
us of that number. For example, I can see a curved swan’s head and neck
matching the curved top section of the number 2. Some people use a boat
or sailboat for the number 4 because it looks like a boat’s sail. The
key point is to associate a word that represents a specific number for
you and only you.
1. = Paintbrush
2. = Swan
3. = Heart
4. = Boat
5. = Hook
6. = Elephant’s Trunk
7. = Cliff
8. = Hourglass/Time
9. = Stick & Balloon
10. = Bat & Ball
The Number-Shape System: Let’s say you wanted to memorize this
short list of items. This might be a grocery list or a list of possible
answers for a major test.
- Apple Pie
- Field of Wheat
We would then construct this Number-Shape System:
1. (Paintbrush) The Symphony painted a good melody.
2. (Swan) He bowed his head in prayer like a swan.
3. (Heart) He loved Watermelon.
4. (Sailboat) We sailed away from the harbor as the Volcano erupted.
5. (Hook) He became hooked on Motorcycles.
6. (Elephant’s Trunk) Dumbo lifted his trunk towards the Sunshine.
7. (Cliff) I’d jump off a cliff for Mom’s Apple Pie.
8. (Hourglass) It took time for the Blossoms to bloom.
9. (Stick & Balloon) The Spaceship floated like a child’s
10.(Ball & Bat) Our old baseball field has been converted into a
Field Of Wheat.
These are, of course, the examples I would use. You must personalize
your Number-Shape System to fit your own style. Your own system and
images will tag the information you wish to remember in a much more
The Number-Rhyme System
The Number-Rhyme System works much like the Number-Shape System except
we substitute sounds for images associated with the numbers 1 through
1. = sounds like bun or sun.
2. = sounds like shoe or pew.
3. = sounds like tree or flea.
4. = sounds like door or poor.
5. = sounds like dive or drive.
6. = sounds like sticks or bricks.
7. = sounds like heaven or eleven (7-Eleven).
8. = sounds like skate or gate.
9. = sounds like line or wine.
10. = sounds like pen or men.
The Number-Rhyme System: Lets say you wanted to memorize this
short list of items. Again, this could be anything from a shopping list
to a list of possible answers for a test.
We would then construct this Number-Rhyme System:
1. (Sun) The Atom blast glared brighter than the sun.
2. (Shoe) Not everyone owns a shoe Tree.
3. (Tree) The tree-doctor put a Stethoscope around the trunk.
4. (Door) We moved the Sofa near the door.
5. (Drive) We had to drive in the Alley.
6. (Bricks) The western house had bricks arranged like Tile on
7. (Eleven) The car drove through the Windscreen at the 7-Eleven.
8. (Bait) We used Honey as bait for the flies.
9. (Line) The artist used a fine Brush to paint the line.
10. (Men) The shipwrecked men had not used Toothpaste in 2 years.
This is again, an example I would use. The more vivid and/or ridiculous
the rhymes are made will have a greater impact on how well your memory
attempts to tag this information. Remember to personalize this system
so that it fits your imagination and learning style.
The Major System: How to remember Phone Numbers and Dates in History
The Major System is the ultimate memory enhancement tool. It has been
used, studied, and improved upon for nearly 400 years. This versatile
system will allow you to memorize limitless lists of facts, dates and
series of numbers. It also enables you to organize lists in a variety
of orders, so that memorization is customized to best fit your learning
style. The basic structure of the Major System is to designate consonant
letter codes for the numbers 0 through 9.
Example: 0 = s,z = s & z are the first sounds of the word "zero."
1 = d,t = d & t have one pen downstroke.
2 = n = n has two pen downstrokes.
3 = m = m has three pen downstrokes.
4 = r = r is the last letter in the word "four."
5 = l = the top of the number 5 is an "L."
6 = j,sh = j is the mirror image of the number "6."
7 = k,ch = k is shaped like two "7’s."
8 = f,v = f, when handwritten, has two loops like an "8."
9 = b,p = b & p are mirror images of the number "9."
Examples: The Major System for Phone Numbers
|Your Tennis Partner||640-7336||= (7336/c,m,m,sh)||= Can Make Masterful SHots|
|Local Theatre||869-9521||= (9521/p,l,n,t)||= Produce Laughter -N- Tears|
|Favorite Restaurant||354-6350||= (m,l,r, - ch,m,l,s)||= My Local Restaurant CHarges Moderate Lunch Specials|
Examples: The Major System for Appointments
|10:00 am||- Dentist fill cavity.||= (10:00/d,s,s,s)||= Dental Surgeon Saves Smile|
|9:20 pm||- Movie with friend.||= (9:20/p,n,c)||= Preview New Cinema|
Examples: The Major System for Historical Dates.
|1666||= Great fire of London||= (666/sh,sh,sh||= aSHes,aSHes,aSHes|
|1454||= First Printing Press||= (454/r,l,r)||= RoLloR|
|1789||= French Revolution||= (789,k,f,p)||= King Fights People|
The more you practice the Major System, the more powerful your memory
will become. This system will strengthen both the short and long term
memory. Increasing any memory will help you recall more data for tests.
Other Tips for Memory
The best system is one you customize and create yourself.
When reading to remember, scan graphs, side-notes, margins, intro,
and summary paragraphs.
When Highlighting: Highlight areas you are not comfortable
- Single words or sentences that "define" headings.
- Skip explanations and extra examples.
- Also highlight your notes when possible.
Understanding what the concept is saying or explaining helps increase
When trying to remember words, it’s always helpful to see the parts
or construction of the word rather than the whole word.
Memorization is as easy as teaching yourself to "cue" and
The Roman Room System
The Romans were great advocates of mnemonic systems. In their time, they
created a system popularly called the Roman Room. Each Roman would detail
a permanent vision of their own home within their mind. The home is a
familiar place that each person generally visits several times a day.
To this permanent vision they would attach items they wished to remember.
Try to picture your present home’s front door in your mind. See the
trim and fixtures like a Roman would see the stone entry-way and marble
pillars of the olden Roman home. If you can’t visualize your own home,
create a vision of what you might imagine as any Romans doorway might
look like. Remember to always see your door and trim like the Romans’
pillars and stone archway.
The Roman might, for example, have constructed his mental image of
the entrance and front room with two gigantic pillars at either side
of the front door, a carved lion’s head as the doorknob, and an exquisite
Greek statue on the immediate left as he walked in. Next to the statue
might be a large sofa with the fur of one of the animals the Roman had
The Roman would then start a typical day by arranging a shortened
list of things he/she wished to do and remember for that day. Let’s
say that the Roman wanted to remember to buy a new pair of sandals,
to get his sword sharpened, to buy a new house maid, and to finish the
weeding in his grape vineyard. He would simply imagine the first pillar
outside his doorway arranged with thousands of sandals, the leather
polished and glistening in the sun, with the smell of fresh leather
filling the air. He would imagine sharpening the sword on the second
pillar, hearing the scraping with each stroke, feeling the edge as it
gets sharper and sharper. The Roman would then pull on the ornate doorknob,
revealing the front room, and looking to see if the new house maid had
arrived yet. She would be there, sitting on the lion skin sofa, which
would materialize into a raging lion that gave the servant a galloping
ride over to the only statue in the room. The servant would then pluck
a withered, discolored grape from the dense matting of vines that encrypt
the statue. The servant would then say, "Sorry I cannot offer you
better fruit, but the weeds have been so bad this year that the grapes
will not grow any better than this!"
Once you construct your Roman Room for each group of things you wish
to remember, always mentally walk around that room a second time to
familiarize yourself with the sequence, placing and positioning of all
the items you place in that room.
The Roman Room System eliminates all boundaries on your imagination
and allows you to remember as many items as you wish. Many people find
this to be their favorite memory system, and will make lists hundreds
of items long to put in their gigantic Roman Room.
Remembering People's Names
One of the most important things we use our memory for is to recall people’s
names. Although it’s important, most of us put ourselves in embarrassing
situations where we can and do remember the face, but cannot remember
the name. Our recent ancestors were lucky enough not to have this problem.
It was common knowledge that people who baked bread were named "Baker."
The same is true for "Blacksmiths," "Carpenters" and
Today the name game is a little more complicated. In college, we meet
people in large group settings and it is extremely difficult to remember
just a few of the names for any real length of time. Thankfully, there
are two systems that can help us remember and connect the face to the
name. Used correctly, each system builds and strengthens the other.
The first system derives from the early colonial rules of social etiquette,
and the second is taken from the Mnemonic Methods we have learned about
earlier in this handout.
The first or Social Etiquette System follows a series of steps that
progress to the goal of remembering names for social interaction purposes.
Whether for social or professional purposes, the steps will set an easily
learned pattern that can help you start associating a particular name
with the corresponding face.
- Don’t "know" that your memory is terrible and not attempt
to really "hear" how each person’s name is pronounced.
- Greet people by looking them straight in the face. Look for one
distinguishing feature such as hair, eyes, lips, nose, forehead, wrinkles
or facial hair. Find something that makes this person unique.
- Listen to "how" this person’s name is pronounced.
- Always ask to repeat the name. "Did you say Joe Smith?"
- If the name still puzzles you, ask for the correct spelling. If
you were panicked by introducing yourself, this is a good way to hear
the name again without being totally obvious
- Find closure with steps #4 and #5. Make sure that you can spell
or say their name.
- Exchange business cards if you can. You then have a hard copy for
- Repeat that person’s name in conversation as much as possible. "John,
do you know Joe Smith? Joe is a business major from Houston."
- During any pauses in the conversation, internally repeat that person’s
name to yourself.
- During longer breaks, step back and recite each persons name along
with the facial characteristic that helps you to remember them.
- When the group breaks up or you leave, use that person’s name in
your farewell. "Well Mr. Smith, it was a pleasure to meet you."
- After you leave the scene, write down people’s names and the facial
characteristics that set them apart from others.
- Set your goals slowly. If you have not tried to remember names in
the past, you won’t be an expert right away. Make a goal of remembering
5 people’s names each time you get into a group setting. When this
becomes easy, push your goal up to 6 or 7. You will find that once
you get the 5 goal down that increasing the limit is extremely easy.
The second system in "remembering people’s names," is the Mnemonic
System we have learned about in the earlier sections off this handout.
By using simple association and imagination, we can mentally flag information
that we choose to make interesting enough to remember. A combination of
this and the Etiquette System works best for long term retention of memory.
- Make sure you are clear about the correct way of spelling and pronouncing
that person’s name.
- Make sure you mentally repeat the person’s name at least twice in
- Look for that one obvious head or facial characteristic.
- Mentally reconstruct that person’s face. Use your wildest creativity
to exaggerate the head or facial characteristic much like a cartoonist
- Repeat that person’s name while imagining the intensified feature
you made up. It sometimes helps to rhyme or spoof the person’s name.
You might remember John Pane by thinking "John Wayne" Pane.